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Volume 58, Number 2, 2014 (Published in December 2017)

Environmental Education at Primary Level (Class III-V) Curriculum in Bangladesh: A Case Study on the Reflection of Environmental Education on Children’s Knowledge and Environmental Attitude

By Nishat Jahan and Mohd. Shamsul Alam; Page: 01-14

Abstract: This study attempts to review the National Education Policy, Primary level curriculum and textbooks (Grade III-V) in consideration of environmental education to evaluate the knowledge level and environmental attitude of children. Environmental education is a holistic approach to foster environmental sensitivity, responsible environmental behavior and promote sustainable development. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been followed for the study purpose. The national education policy and primary level curriculum have been reviewed for document analysis. To evaluate the knowledge level and environmental attitude of the children a questionnaire survey was done and students were informally interviewed. About 120 students were selected from urban and semi-urban area of Dhaka district purposively. The result shows that the knowledge level of the students of urban area is better than the students of semi-urban area. But in the context of environmental attitude the performance of both categories were not satisfactory. However, the textbook and curriculum analysis shows that, few concepts are not connected vertically and horizontally. It might have triggered rote learning. Contents can be presented in a more interesting way with familiar words for children. Teachers can provide a stimulating environment for children with appropriate suggestion so that the child’s understanding can be extended far beyond. This is high time “The national education policy” to be reviewed by the concerned authority and included some more specific objectives on environmental education for primary level curriculum.
Keywords: Environmental Education, National Education Policy, Curriculum, Environmental Knowledge, Environmental Attitude

Impact of Jillur Rahman Flyover on Road Transportation System of Mirpur, Dhaka

By Rajoana Akter and Hafiza Khatun; Page: 15-30

Abstract: Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh is carrying population of more than 15 million resulting the generation of heavy traffic congestion at the road intersections. Flyover, important part of urban transport system, is a useful tool to solve the traffic congestion and to make traffic flow smooth and uninterrupted. The Jillur Rahman flyover is the third flyover of Dhaka city. It was constructed to connect Mirpur area mostly with the north-western part of the city. The study was conducted to find out its impact on the road transportation system of Mirpur area. Questionnaire survey, traffic survey, O-D survey, FGD and in-depth interview with the stakeholders are the principal sources of primary data. Secondary data were collected from different organizations and published materials. The study reveals that the flyover has many positive impacts on improving connectivity of Mirpur, especially with the north-western part of Dhaka city. It has also improved the transportation system by establishing uninterrupted road communication through Cantonment, by reducing travel time and distance to a great extent and making communication almost congestion free. The flyover has also generated some negative impacts like road accident.
Keywords: Jillur Rahman Flyover, Road Transportation System, Connectivity, Communication, Mirpur

An Approach to the Origin of Boga Lake and Pukurpara Lake in the Hill Districts of Bangladesh

By M. Shahidul Islam, Pramanondo Debnath and Jean Marie Garnier; Page: 31-52

Abstract: Boga lake and Pukurpara lake are naturally created hilly lakes located on hill tops in the hill districts of Bangladesh. The former is oval in shape and has a maximum water depth of 35 meter and the later is semicircular nut-shaped and has a maximum water depth of 28 meter. They preserve stratified sedimentary sequences, which are suitable for palaeo-environment and palaeoclimatic reconstruction. Using hand-operated piston corer, operating from a floating platform we collected 7 boreholes from Boga lake and 6 boreholes from Pukurpara lake upto 150 cm long. The bathymetry of the lake floors and terrine study shows that both lakes occupy the valleys of the Tertiary hills. Microfossil evidences (diatom) and C14 results suggest the varying rates and direction of monsoon intensity and its cycles of intense torrential rainfalls events during the late Holocene period. It has been argued that there were 13 phases of alternative weak and strong monsoon events during the last 1500 years. The intensified monsoon sequences have had tremendous impact on the terrain morphology and fluvial dynamics in the hilly regions of Bangladesh. The lakes on top of Tertiary hills are not volcanic in origin. Rather intensive monsoon events triggered by mega-scale earthquakes were the driving forces to massive landslide and massmovement to closure the valley mouths, which initiated the formation of hilly lake basins in the Tertiary landscape and has later been top-up by torrential rainfed water. Many of such lakes were small in size and have later been filled-up by excessive surface erosion and have turned into wetland ecosystem and marshy plain lands. However, Boga lake and Pukurpara lake, since their origin, till remain their original shape and form, and bear the characteristics of typical hilly lake environment. These two lakes are the examples to reveal how the origin of lakes in the hill districts of Bangladesh are associated with intensified palaeo-monsoon driven heavy rainfall in association with palaeo-seismic activities. C14 dates suggest that Boga lake is much younger (less than 500 yrs BP) than Pukurpara lake (estimated 2000 yrs BP).
Keywords: Boga Lake, Pukurpara Lake, Palaeo-monsoon, Palaeo-earthquake, Palaeolandslides

International Female Labour Migration and Its Impact on Family Member Left Behind: A Case Study on Sadarpur Upazila, Faridpur

By Sabnam Sarmin Luna and Md. Saiful Islam; Page: 53-72

Abstract: The present study attempts to determine the socio-demographic profile of female labour migrants, causes of their migration, process of migration, dynamics of remittances and the impact of their migration on family members left behind in the study area from 2003 to 2015 when female migration expressed its remarkable existence after withdrawal of the prohibition. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. According to the survey findings, around 69% of female are illiterate and most of them are married. Contributing factors that help to take decision of migration are mainly poverty, family pressure, better education for children and better earning facility. Regarding migration cost, roughly 44% of female migrants paid above BDT 50,000 for visa. Most of them (62.5%) collect visa through broker and a significant number (nearly 24%) manage it from their close relatives who stay abroad. It is observed that approximately three fourth of the workers remit through Bank. The study gives a mixed image of the consequences both positive and negative impacts on family members of migrants’ household.
Keywords: Female Migrant, Labour Migration, Remittance, Impact, Family Member, Faridpur

Factors Associated with Fire Hazard in the Readymade Garment Factory of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

By Md. Faruk Hossain; Page: 73-90

Abstract: This paper illustrates the major factors associated with fire hazard in the garment factories such as unauthorized sub-contracting, non-compliance of rules and regulations and unplanned factory buildings are considered the important issues. Moreover, lack of maintaining compliances in the factories, negligence of occupational safety and health (OSH) issue and inadequate firefighting equipment etc. are responsible for fires in the factories. The existing worst situations can be improved by taking proper measures which can ensure a safe working environment for around 4 million of workers engaged in this sector.
Keywords: Fire Hazard, Garment Factory, Unauthorized Sub-contracting, Compliance, Dhaka City

Spatiotemporal Variability of Rainfall in Bangladesh Using Thiessen Polygon and Spline Interpolation

By Md. Sofi Ullah, Anamik Ani Khan and Md. Amran Hossain; Page: 91-111

Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the rainfall variability of Bangladesh. Previous research gap has supported to develop the rationale and conceptual framework of the study. Sixty years (1953 to 2012) rainfall data were collected from Bangladesh Meteorological Department and then arranged in the tabular format to analyze rainfall variability using ArcGIS. Rainfall variability has been shown by using Thiessen polygon and Spline interpolation. Ten years interval has been used to shown climatic maps. Total 12 variability maps (6 from Thiessen polygon and 6 from Spline interpolation) have been analyzed. Data shows that north-western zone of Rajshahi division of Bangladesh is dry region due to the occurrence of low rainfall but north-eastern zone of Sylhet division, Bhola district and Coxs-Bazar district are facing high rainfall. The differences of rainfall pattern at spatial context in both Thiessen polygon and Spline interpolation have also been represented in this study. The annual rainfall pattern is irregular, where the increasing or decreasing trends are unique and the rainfall variability is high in Bangladesh.
Keywords: GIS, Rainfall, Spline Interpolation, Thiessen Polygon, Zonal Statistics, Bangladesh

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Volume 58, Number 1, 2014 (Published in July 2017)

Role of Participatory Supervision in Restoration of Livelihood of Affected Persons: Case Study of Bhairab Bridge Project, Bangladesh

By Hafiza Khatun; Page:01-17

Abstract: The paper evaluates the role of participatory supervision of resettlement and social development plans in Bhairab Bridge Project. The project area was semi-urban in nature, located in river ports and business hubs. The author uses data collected from the field, evaluation reports coupled with first-hand work experience in the project. The significant impacts of the project included dislocation of SMEs, mobile vendors, loss of business and employment. DAC-OECD guidelines were adopted in designing the Social Action Plans (SAPs). International and local specialists were involved in the planning and close supervision of SAP implementation. The INGO and project management were assisted by the social development specialists in dealing with critical implementation issues. Supervisors played a significant role in development of resettlement market by the EA. Varieties of businesses have emerged in the area where more than 10,000 people are working. The participatory supervision was a high point in SAP implementation.
Keywords: SAP, Livelihood, Bhairab Bridge, INGO, Resettlement Market, Vulnerable, Supervision

Construction Trend of Multi-Storied Buildings in Old Dhaka: Exploring Neighborhood Change in Shekh Saheb Bazar

By Rajiya Khatun and M. Maksudur Rahman; Page:19-34

Abstract: Vertical expansion of space in the form of making multi-storied buildings has been increased tremendously all around Dhaka city. Combination of plot to plot land use survey, household questionnaire survey and in-depth interview has been used in this research to examine the overall condition of change at Shekh Saheb Bazar Neighborhood (SSBN) in old Dhaka. The study result exhibits that in 2015 about 61% buildings are four-storey and above which was 21% in 2005. Relative Change Quotient of building height shows that sixstorey building has increased at about 547% from 2005 to 2015. There were no buildings above six-storey during 2005 but in 2015 there are about 14% buildings of above six-storey in SSBN. Land use results show that 68% buildings are being used as pure residential and 25% are mixed purposes. Realestate companies have become a major influencing agent in local housing market. Although the number of multi-storied buildings is increasing, the condition of urban amenities and neighborhood services are not improving simultaneously. Rather the quality of different services like drainage and sewerage system, roads, street lightning, garbage disposal is degrading dramatically.
Keywords: Neighborhood Change, Multi-storied Building, Urban Amenities, Old Dhaka

Geo-Environmental Characteristics and Land Suitability Assessment for Aus Rice Cultivation in Cox’s Bazaar Sadar Upazila of Bangladesh

By Abdul Hoque; Page:35-57

Abstract: Based on the overall agro-climatic and agro-edaphic characteristics the land suitability of two Aus rice varieties in Cox’s Bazaar Sadar Upazila has been tried to determine under the present study. For this purpose, various landform units of the study area have been identified with a view to determine the unit wise agro-climatic and agro-edaphic criteria. A total of 11 landform units have been recognized, out of which 8 were considered to assess suitability ranges for the cultivation of individual rice categories. Majority of the landform units have been found ‘suitable’ for Rupa Aus (Ufshi) cultivation. However, ‘Low Hills and Valley Areas’ were identified as ‘slightly suitable’, while ‘Medium High Hilly Areas’ found quite ‘unsuitable’. On the other hand, ‘Piedmont Plain with Highland’ and ‘Foothill Plain with Medium Highland’ of the study area have been identified as ‘highly suitable’ for Bona Aus (Local) cultivation while areas under ‘Tidal Floodplain with Medium Highland’ have been recognized as ‘suitable’. Besides, ‘Tidal Floodplain with High and Medium Highland’ and ‘Tidal Floodplain with Medium High and Medium Lowland’ have been identified as ‘moderately suitable’. Nonetheless, being open to the sea, maximum of the studied agricultural land in Cox’s Bazaar Sadar Upazila has been found significantly affected by recent climate change and increased salinity intrusion which made the area highly restricted to produce satisfactory level of Aus rice varieties.
Keywords: Landform Unit, Agro-edaphic Characteristics, Agro-climatic Criteria, Land Suitability, Cox’s Bazaar Sadar Upazila

Riverbank Erosion Induced Migration: A Case Study of Charbhadrasan Upazila, Faridpur

By Biddut Kumar Ghosh and A Q M Mahbub; Page:59-71

Abstract: Riverbank erosion is one of the most severe natural hazards in Bangladesh. It erodes enormous amount of land as well as it creates internal population displacement bringing disastrous socio-economic consequences. This study was an attempt to examine the process and pattern of riverbank erosion induced migration of Charbhadrasan Upazila at Faridpur located at the right bank of the Padma River. Charbhadrasan Upazila is the most vulnerable Upazila for riverbank erosion due to char formation, shifting channels, loose materials and high velocity of water in the Padma River during monsoon period. The study based on both primary data collected through questionnaire survey and Focus Group Discussion and secondary data from different sources reveals that due to riverbank erosion the number of migrated households was found 10132 and the number of eroded villages was identified 66 in Charbhadrasan Upazila during 1988-2013. The migrated households propagated all over the study area. Most of the displaced households migrated to big cities particularly Dhaka and nearby district headquarters. Effective and immediate interventions are required to protect riverbank erosion in the study area.
Keywords: Riverbank Erosion, Migration Process and Pattern, Padma River, Employment Opportunities

Dwelling Structures in the Cyclone Prone Coastal Area: A Case Study of Burirchar, Barguna

By Syed Anowerul Azim; Page:73-88

Abstract: Bangladesh faces severe cyclone almost on a regular basis and thus subject to devastation. The long coastline is covered by the Sundarban, which gives some degree of protection in the western coast, but the looming threat is so pervasive in the south-central belt that cyclone storm surges have devastating effect. With such a back drop, certain indigenous treatise may be of great use to combat large scale devastation. It is being observed that the dwelling structure and layout characteristics can abate cyclonic storm to a great extent. The study considered Burirchar Union of Barguna District as the study area. The study observed the homestead characteristics and homestead layout influenced given the local people’s economic status. It has been found that houses in study areas are constructed giving importance the local geographical characteristics including natural disturbances.
Keywords: Dwelling Homesteads, Cyclones, Jhupri, Chala, Floating Pillar, Barguna

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Temperature in Bangladesh: An Analysis from 1950 to 2012

By Asib Ahmed and Mohammad Jakir Hossen; Page:89-110

Abstract: The current research is an endeavor to analyse the spatial and temporal trends of temperature in Bangladesh based on available data from 1950 to 2012 obtained from Bangladesh Meteorological Department. Collected data have been analysed through Arc GIS software and the statistical software ‘R’ for mapping and time series analysis. The study found that monthly maximum temperature has increased to 0.12°C while the monthly mean temperature has increased to 0.56°C for the last 63 years. On the other hand, the monthly minimum temperature reveals the increase of 0.08°C for the above mentioned years. Maximum increase of monthly maximum temperature has occurred to 1.3°C in the month of November and minimum temperature has decreased to 0.37°C in the month of February during the last 63 years. It is found that maximum temperature has been increased dramatically over the last 40 years period. During the last 63 years the highest temperature of 44°C recorded at Bogra and Ishwardi in April 1956 and May 1970 respectively. The recorded lowest temperature of 3.2°C was observed at Rajshahi in January 2003. Regionally, Rajshahi was the warmest area during summer season and Khulna was the coldest area during winter season.
Keywords: Climate, Meteorology, Seasonal Expansion, Temperature, Time Series

Volume 57, Number 1 & 2, 2013;
Volume 56, Number 1 & 2, 2012;
Volume 55, Number 1 & 2, 2011;
Volume 54, Number 1 & 2, 2010;
Volume 53, Number 1 & 2, 2009;
Volume 52, Number 1 & 2, 2008;
Volume 51, Number 1 & 2, 2007;
Volume 48, Number 1, 2004;
Volume 43, Number 1, 1999;
Volume 42, Number 2, 1998;
Volume 42, Number 1, 1998;
Volume 41, Number 2, 1997;
Volume 41, Number 1, 1997;
Volume 40, Number 1 & 2, 1996;
Volume 38, Number 1 & 2, 1994;
Volume 36, Number 2, 1992;
Volume 34, Number 1 & 2, 1990;
Volume 29 & 30, 1985 & 1986;
Volume 27, Number 1 & 2, 1983;
Volume 26, Number 1 & 2, 1982;
Volume 25, Number 1 & 2, 1981;
Volume 18, Number 2, 1974;
Volume 17, Number 2, 1973;
Volume 15, Number 1 & 2, 1971;
Volume 14, Number 1, 1970;
Volume 12, Number 1, 1968;
Volume 11, Number 1, 1967;
Volume 09, Number 1, 1965;
Volume 08, Number 2, 1964;
Volume 07, Number 2, 1963;
Volume 57, Number 1 & 2, 2013;
Volume 56, Number 1 & 2, 2012;
Volume 55, Number 1 & 2, 2011;
Volume 54, Number 1 & 2, 2010;
Volume 53, Number 1 & 2, 2009;
Volume 52, Number 1 & 2, 2008;
Volume 51, Number 1 & 2, 2007;
Volume 48, Number 1, 2004;
Volume 43, Number 1, 1999;
Volume 42, Number 2, 1998;
Volume 42, Number 1, 1998;
Volume 41, Number 2, 1997;
Volume 41, Number 1, 1997;
Volume 40, Number 1 & 2, 1996;
Volume 38, Number 1 & 2, 1994;
Volume 36, Number 2, 1992;
Volume 34, Number 1 & 2, 1990;
Volume 29 & 30, 1985 & 1986;
Volume 27, Number 1 & 2, 1983;
Volume 26, Number 1 & 2, 1982;
Volume 25, Number 1 & 2, 1981;
Volume 18, Number 2, 1974;
Volume 17, Number 2, 1973;
Volume 15, Number 1 & 2, 1971;
Volume 14, Number 1, 1970;
Volume 12, Number 1, 1968;
Volume 11, Number 1, 1967;
Volume 09, Number 1, 1965;
Volume 08, Number 2, 1964;
Volume 07, Number 2, 1963;
Volume 57, Number 1 & 2, 2013;
Volume 56, Number 1 & 2, 2012;
Volume 55, Number 1 & 2, 2011;
Volume 54, Number 1 & 2, 2010;
Volume 53, Number 1 & 2, 2009;
Volume 52, Number 1 & 2, 2008;
Volume 51, Number 1 & 2, 2007;
Volume 48, Number 1, 2004;
Volume 43, Number 1, 1999;
Volume 42, Number 2, 1998;
Volume 42, Number 1, 1998;
Volume 41, Number 2, 1997;
Volume 41, Number 1, 1997;
Volume 40, Number 1 & 2, 1996;
Volume 38, Number 1 & 2, 1994;
Volume 36, Number 2, 1992;
Volume 34, Number 1 & 2, 1990;
Volume 29 & 30, 1985 & 1986;
Volume 27, Number 1 & 2, 1983;
Volume 26, Number 1 & 2, 1982;
Volume 25, Number 1 & 2, 1981;
Volume 18, Number 2, 1974;
Volume 17, Number 2, 1973;
Volume 15, Number 1 & 2, 1971;
Volume 14, Number 1, 1970;
Volume 12, Number 1, 1968;
Volume 11, Number 1, 1967;
Volume 09, Number 1, 1965;
Volume 08, Number 2, 1964;
Volume 07, Number 2, 1963;

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