GETh 402: Climatology – II

Course IDCourse NameInstructorRoom NumberTime
GETh 402Climatology - IIDr. Md. Abdur Rob2428:00-8:50 A.M. (Monday), 10:00-10:50 A.M. (Monday), 8:00-8:50 A.M. (Wednesday)
  1. Earth’s Climate:
    1.1 Defining Climate1.2 The Koeppen System: Tropical Climates (Tropical Wet (Af), Monsoon (Am), Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw); Dry Climates; Subtropical Deserts (BWh) – Subtropical Steppe (BSh), Midlatitude Deserts (BWk), Midlatitude Steppe (BSk); Mild Midlatitude Climates — Mediterranean (Csa, Csb), Humid Subtropical (Ffa, Cwa), Marine West Coast (CIb, Cfc); Severe Midlatitude Climates – Humid Continental (Dfa, Dfb, Dwa, Dwb), Subarctic (Dfc, Dfd, Dwc, Dwd); Polar Climates — Tundra (ET), Ice Cap (EF), Highland Climates (H)
  2. Air Mass and Fronts:
      Frontal Wave Theory of Cyclogenisis
  3. Lightning, Thunder and Tornadoes:
    3.1 Lightning: Lightning formation – Charge Separation-Runaway Discharges-Leaders-Strokes and Flashes, Types of Lightning, Thunder, Lightning Safety
    3.2 Thunderstorms; Air Mass Thunderstorms, Severe Thunderstorms, Downbursts, Hail formation in thunderstorm, Geographic and Temporal Distribution of Thunderstorms
    3.3 Tornadoes; Tornado Characteristics and Dimensions, Tornado Formation, Location and Timing of Tornadoes, Trends in US/Bangladesh Tornado Occurrence, Tornado Damage and Fatalities, Watches and Warnings
  4.  Mid latitude Cyclones:
    4.1 Polar Front Theory, Cyclogenesis, Mature Cyclone, Occlusion, Movement of Cyclones
    4.2 Process of the Middle and Upper Troposphere – Rossby Waves and Vorticity
    4.3 Surface Fronts and Upper Level Patterns, Cold Fronts and Formation of Upper Level Troughs, Interaction of Surface Upper –Level conditions
    4.4 The Modern View: Mid Latitude Cyclones and Conveyor Belts
  5. Tropical Storms and Cyclones:
    5.1 Cyclones Around the Globe: The Tropical Setting, Cyclone/Hurricane Characteristics
    5.2 Cyclone/Hurricane Structure: The Eye and the Eye Wall
    5.3 Cyclone/Hurricane Formation:  Steps in the Formation, Conditions Necessary for Cyclone/Hurricane Formation, Cyclone/Hurricane Movement and Dissipation, Cyclone/Hurricane Paths, Effect of Landfall
    5.4 Cyclone/Hurricane Destruction and Fatalities:   Wind, Heavy Rain, Tornadoes, Storm Surges
    5.5 Cyclone/Hurricane Forecasts and Advisories:  Cyclone/Hurricane Watches and Warnings, Cyclone/Hurricane Intensity Scale
  6. Weather Forecasting and Analysis:
    6.1. Weather Forecasting – Both Art and Science, Impact of Weather Forecasting, Forecasting Methods, Types of Forecasts, Assessing Forecasts
    6.2 Data Acquisition and Dissemination
    6.3 Forecast Procedures and Products: Phases in Numerical Modeling, Medium-Range Forecasts, Long-Range Forecasts and Seasonal Outlooks, Weather Maps and Images
  7. Air Pollution and Heat Islands
    7.1 Atmospheric Pollutants:  Particulates, Carbon Oxides, Sulfur Compounds, Nitrogen Oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds (Hydrocarbons), vi. Photochemical Smog
    7.2 Atmospheric Controls on Air Pollution:  Effects of Winds on Horizontal, Transport, Effect on Atmospheric Stability
    7.3 Urban Heat Islands:   Radiation Effects, Changes in Heat Storage, Sensible and Latent Heat Transfer
  8. Climate Changes: Past and Future
    8.1 Defining Climate Change
    8.2 The Time Scales of Climate Change
    8.3 Past Climates:  i.  Warm Intervals and Ice Ages, ii.  The Current Ice Age, iii.  The last Glacial Maximum, iv.  The Holocene, v.  The Last Century, vi.  Variation on Characteristic Time Scales
    8.4 Factors Involved in Climate Change:   Variations in Solar Output, Changes in Earth’s Orbit, Changes in Land Configuration and Surface Characteristics, Changes in Atmospheric Turbidity, Changes in Atmospheric Turbidity, Changes in Radiation-Absorbing Gases, Feedback Mechanisms
    8.5 General Circulation Models:  Attributing Climate change, Projecting Climate Change
    8.6 Methods of Determining Past Climates:  Oceanic Deposits, Ice Cores, Remnant Landforms, Past Vegetation, Relic Soils

Suggested Readings

  • Aguado, E.  and Burt, James E.,   Understanding Weather and Climate, Prentice Hall, New York, 2010.
  • Ahrens, C. Donald., Essentials of Meteorology: An Invitation to the Atmosphere, Brooks/Cole, US, 2001.
  • Wallace, John M. and Hobbs, Peter V.,   Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey, ELSEVIER, Amstardam. 2006.
  • Reynolds, R., Guide to Weather, Bounty Books, London, 2004.
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